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Biodiversity in a specific environment means the variety of living organisms that are present in that environment, and which are presently threatened by the progressive rise in pollutants and the diminishing habitats. Biodiversity can be described in terms of genes, species or ecosystems.
The importance of biodiversity is due mainly to the fact that life on the planet, including that of human beings,  is possible only thanks to the so-called “services” that ecosystems provide, which help preserve a certain level of functionality. These are provisioning services (ex. food, water, wood and fibre), regulating services (ex. climate, flood, disease control, as well as the quality of the water), cultural services ( aesthetic, recreational and spiritual benefits), and supporting services (ex. formation of the land, photosynthesis and nutrient cycling).

The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified by 188 countries, signed at the1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, together with the Convention to combat desertification; it is, therefore, known as the three Rio Conventions.
The Giogo Casaglia territory presents high levels of biodiversity thanks to the varying environment, altitude, exposure, and the use of the soil.

It is a combination of environments, each bearing its own history and nature, that allow an exceptional variety of animal and vegetable species to reproduce. Some of the valleys were heavily occupied by man until some years ago, but today we find only ruins, fields, and woods that present a very different landscape, in continuous flux.
The Unione Montana dei Comuni del Mugello, which is in charge of controlling the area, carries out interventions to preserve biodiversity, as stated in its Management Plan.
Among these we find the creation of the Bio-diverse Trail, a circular itinerary in the upper part of the Valle del Rovigo, which includes 17 themed rest stops.





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